#FrozenMechanicals Crisis: Monica Corton’s Comment to Copyright Royalty Board

July 26, 2021

Chief Copyright Royalty Judge Jesse M. Feder
Copyright Royalty Judge David R. Strickler
Copyright Royalty Judge Steve Ruwe

U.S. Copyright Royalty Board 101 Independence Ave SE

P.O. Box 70977

Washington, DC 20024-0977

SENT VIA ELECTRONIC DELIVERY

RE: DETERMINATION OF ROYALTY RATES AND TERMS FOR MAKING AND DISTRIBUTING PHONORECORDS, DOCKET NUMBER 21-CRB-0001-

PR (2023-2027) (Phonorecords IV)

Honorable Judges:

My name is Monica Corton, and I am the CEO and Founder of Go to Eleven Entertainment, a newly formed independent music publishing company that is funded. I have been in the music publishing business for over thirty years, twenty- seven of which were spent as the Senior Executive Vice President of Creative Affairs & Licensing at Next Decade Entertainment. My experience is in all areas of music licensing, registrations, and royalty payments, and my former clients included the catalogs of Boston, Harry Belafonte, Vic Mizzy (the “Addams Family Theme” and “Green Acres Theme”), Sammy Hagar, and many more.

It is my understanding that the CRB judges are being asked to accept a Motion to Adopt a freeze or a non-rate increase for all mechanical licensing uses for physical phonorecords, i.e., CDs and vinyl, permanent digital downloads, ringtones and music bundles (when multiple songs are downloaded in groups) for the Rate Period of 2023 to 2027. The rates for these types of uses have been frozen and have not increased for any music publisher or songwriter since 2006. In the past, the National Music Publishers Association (“NMPA”) has explained these freezes as a necessary component to their negotiation for an increase in the digital rates for mechanical licenses. For many years (2006-2021), I have gone along with this explanation, but after fifteen (“15”) years of having no increase on any physical product or digital downloads, I now believe it is completely unfair and no longer justifiable for music publishers and songwriters, particularly the independents and DIY creators (do-it-yourself), to have been denied an increase in these rates after

15 years of allowing record labels to get away without paying any increase whatsoever and now face being blocked from a raise for another five (“5”) years.

To date, the justification for not increasing our physical and digital download mechanical royalty rates has been a fear of potentially stalling or disrupting the transition to the distribution of music digitally. We now are long past that transition, and the major record labels who are pressing for a freeze or no increase in our mechanical rates now are very stable businesses. Indeed, they are flourishing. Universal Music Publishing Group is expected to go public, the major labels are signing more catalog than ever before, and they all are claiming a very healthy, booming industry in the media and to their investors. Part of the reason they are so financially sound is because they are not paying their fair share in mechanical royalties to creators when it comes to physical product, digital download, ringtone, and music bundle mechanical royalties.

You might ask, “Why are the parties outlined in the Motion to Adopt Settlement of Statutory Royalty Rates and Terms for Subpart B Configurations agreeing to this freeze on mechanical rates?” Let’s look at who the parties are that are agreeing: all the major labels, all of their sister music publishing companies, such as Sony Music, Universal Music Publishing, Warner/Chappell Music, and the Nashville Songwriters Association International (“NSAI”). The odd man out is NSAI, a songwriter organization based in Nashville. Why would songwriters approve of a rate that does not allow them to make a living from the mechanical licensing of their songs? The answer is unclear as many NSAI members, when asked, tell me that they are unaware that their organization is selling out their member’s copyrights for an under-market mechanical rate price in the 2023-2027 mechanical rate negotiations with the CRB. A perusal of the NSAI website shows nothing about NSAI’s participation in these negotiations or the positions it is taking in such negotiations. If their membership does not know that NSAI is agreeing to freeze these mechanical rates, how can the songwriter member of NSAI be a “willing buyer, willing seller”?

The NMPA’s Motion to Adopt Settlement states “the Settlement represents the consensus of buyers and sellers representing the vast majority of the market for “mechanical” rights for Subpart B Configurations”, yet this is incorrect. It seems likely that songwriters represented by the major labels have no idea that their publisher is agreeing to not increase their mechanical royalties for another 5 years, for a total twenty-one (“21”) years of non-increases in physical product, digital download, ringtone, and music bundle mechanical rates. While these songwriters have been denied any increased rates, nearly everything else in the world has

increased in price substantially. There is no food item, rent, mortgage, car, gasoline, school or tax rate that has not increased from 2006 to 2021 and will not increase from 2023 to 2027.

Further, another concern is that the NMPA has kept the negotiations for this subsection very quiet. As a member of many of the music trade organizations and someone who is paying attention to the pulse of independent publishers and songwriters, I can attest that there has been no discussion of these frozen mechanical rates. Outside of the major companies that control copyrights, there is vast market of independents, foreign music publishers/songwriters, and do-it- yourself (“DIY”) creators who have no voice in these hearings or rate settings.

These are the people who are having a much harder time making a living from their music. Many of them have songs that sell a lot of physical product and digital downloads, as physical product is still doing well in many niche markets where independent music publishers/songwriters and DIY creators live. These creators are not well-educated in music publishing, either from an industry knowledge of licensing perspective or a legal perspective (where they would follow the day-to- day happenings of the CRB hearings.) They are the silent 40+% of the market that makes up the independent side of music publishing. We are a mighty group. We represent thousands of creators, and our numbers are increasing the balance of the business every year, so much so that Sony Music just bought AWAL, a formerly independent label that administered master rights for thousands of DIY creators and was owned by Kobalt. Please read (https://www.rollingstone.com/pro/features/why-did-sony-music-just-spend-430- million-on-kobalt-indie-label-awal-1122350/).

Are you certain that those AWAL artists, who often also are the songwriters of the songs that they record, have any idea that their new label owner is advocating for them not to get a mechanical rate increase for physical copies, digital downloads, ringtones, and music bundles for the next 5 years, after already 15 years of not receiving an increase in their mechanical rates? I would argue that a significant majority of them have no idea that this is happening.

There is reference in several places that the major labels and major publishers are party to some “side deal” which ostensibly could mean the major publishers are receiving some extra compensation for these frozen rates with some additional payments that effectively make the major music publishers mechanical rates increase their rates for physical mechanicals, digital downloads, ringtones, and music bundles. What is this settlement? Who is party to it? How will it affect the music publishing industry at large?

I would ask that the CRB consider raising the mechanical rates for physical product, digital downloads, ringtones, and music bundles to at least a standard of living increase since 2006, which I have calculated using the CPI Inflation Calculator that is provided by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (https://www.bls.gov/data/inflation_calculator.htm). This would mean that the physical mechanical rate and the digital download rate for songs under five minutes would increase to $.12 per unit and the per minute rate for anything over five minutes would increase to $.02 per minute. The ringtone rate would increase to $.33 per ringtone, and the music bundle rate should increase proportionally as well. Unfortunately, I am unclear regarding where the music bundle rates stand now, but the calculator is very easy to use, and I leave it to the CRB judges to assist reasonably in determining the increase for said music bundle mechanical royalty rate(s). These mechanical rates should take effect on January 1, 2023 and be the starting point for the next rate period. In addition, the rate should increase each year of the 5-year term as is the standard with all other mechanical rates that are set by the CRB.

I believe this is the only fair and equitable way to deal with these frozen mechanical rates, and I hope that my explanation on behalf of thousands of independent publishers and songwriters who represent the independent and DIY communities will give the CRB judges pause to reconsider the physical product, digital download, ringtone, and music bundle mechanical rates included in Subpart B for the period 2023-2027. I am happy to elaborate in any way regarding any aspect of this letter should the CRB judges like further explanation on my reasoning herein.

Best wishes,

Monica Corton
CEO & Founder

Go to Eleven Entertainment

Monica Corton Consulting Suggestions to the Copyright Office for MMA Regulations

Monica Corton’s comment in the Copyright Office’s request for comments makes some excellent points (you can read the entire comment here), particularly about educating songwriters about the necessity of complying with the formalities of registering with the Mechanical Licensing Collective in order to get paid.  This question is important and again raises the question of who bears the direct transaction cost on songwriters for that registration which was not addressed in the Music Modernization Act.

Ms. Corton comes to a similar issue also raised by others regarding the black box, but has a great point that a helpful way to reduce the black box would be by requiring the copyright owners to pay for third party services to assist MLC in cleaning up the data.  That’s a great idea, although it does seem that the cost of MLC registration should be paid by the services  as part of the assessment (which would be more consistent with what was promised).  It would be simple to require the MLC to pay the third party vendors on an ongoing basis (and of course would not be able to write itself a loan from the black box to pay for those costs as David has pointed out).

We have bolded some of the language in Ms. Corton’s post to help connect the dots:

The [Music Modernization Act] does not require publishers to provide data to the MLC. This is a problem because it could mean that smaller independent publishers or self-published songwriters may not know that they have to submit their data to the MLC in order to get paid from the digital services. They may not understand that they will not get paid without submitting data and that their money will go into an unallocated account that gets liquidated by to publishers based on their market share.

This is why there was so much time devoted to the education piece of the MMA during the recent symposium at the Copyright Office on December 6, 2019. I attended the symposium and in the following week, I had conversations with John Raso of HFA and Bill Colitre at MRI. I spoke to them both about my concern for the education piece and told them I thought the MLC was missing an education committee which I would be happy to help put together. It should include music publishers, digital representatives and educators.

We need a year to promote and educate people about the MMA, the MLC, why it’s important to register, how to obtain all their necessary data (i.e. ISWCs, ISRCs, publisher splits etc.) and the steps required to submit an accurate registration. John Raso urged me to write to Alisa Coleman making this suggestion regarding adding an education committee to the MLC. I emailed Alisa Coleman on Monday, December 9, but I have not heard back from her.

It is the feeling among many independent publishers, songwriters and even some DSP representatives that there is no real will to educate the masses about the MLC and registration. The reason is a majority of the members of the MLC board stand to gain millions of dollars from unallocated royalties if the MLC does not locate the publishers/songwriters of these unclaimed works.

There is evidence for this. When the NMPA negotiated a $30 million dollar settlement with Spotify, Spotify offered up their unclaimed works files to the settlement group. Every publisher that participated in the NMPA Spotify Settlement was given the chance to claim those works. When David Israelite visited the AIMP in NYC to discuss the matter after the process was well underway, he informed the AIMP membership that something like 15-20% of the unclaimed works were eventually claimed. However, this means that 80-85% of those works still need to be matched to their rightful owners. These works are also most probably part of the NOIs that have been sitting at the Copyright Office and were filed by the DSPs to avoid liability. It is a massive undertaking to try to match these unclaimed works, however, a well thought out education initiative that is strategically based could probably solve at least 50-60% of the unclaimed works identification. I’m suggesting an “edutainment” approach where we utilize celebrity songwriter/artists to get our message out over YouTube and other social media sites. We raise awareness about the reasons why registration to the MLC is so important. We give great tutoring videos on how to locate your appropriate registration information and we assist in getting them to submit spread sheets with all of their data laid out in the best way that the MLC can ingest it.

Without the education piece fully in place, I fear that a majority of the unclaimed works are going to be put in this unallocated fund and distributed by market share to the biggest publishers in the business. This has been the practice of every single NMPA settlement since the distribution of the NMPA Late Fee Settlement, and the major publishers, as well as the large independent publishers have benefited greatly from this practice.

In order to avoid this happening, I would like to support MRI’s suggestion that “the MLC make the raw data from the DSPs available to qualified, third party data processors, hired by such copyright owners, in order that they may verify the completeness and accuracy of such records and potentially claim ownership of musical works associated with the sound recordings listed in such records. Such efforts, to take place no less than six months prior to any liquidation event, would be meant to supplement, not replace, the MLC’s own efforts to identify the copyright owners of “unclaimed” musical works. In addition to promoting greater transparency in such matching efforts, these supplemental efforts will give music publishers-the parties best placed to identify their own works-a seat at the table as the MLC prepares for this critical initial distribution of unclaimed royalty funds. They will also reduce the burden on the MLC’s nascent claiming system and assist the MLC in bringing greater accuracy to the musical works database it will have established by such time.”

In light of the suggestions…for a third party representative to assist in claiming works, there needs to be an approved list of such “qualified third-party data processors” available on the MLC website. Many DIY songwriters will not know who these companies are and could get taken in by people who are not qualified. The Copyright Office should be the arbiter of providing the list of qualified third-party data processors. Certainly, MRI should be on this list.